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And if there is some structural bias or elementary orientation in contemporary economics that is intrinsically skewed toward neoliberalism or towards a progressive agenda, I haven’t located it. The operate of the 3 economists reviewed below indicates that, in point, it may perhaps not exist. Footnotes 1 D Kennedy, A Planet of Battle: How Energy, Law, and Knowledge Shape World Political Overall economy (Princeton UP, 2016) 7. Review Essay: The Armenian Question and#304stanbul: and#304letiand#351im Yayand#305nlarand#305, 2008, third printing.

According to Taner AkAi??am, this was part of a general population policy on the part of Ottoman leaders that aimed at deporting and exterminating the empire’s Christian minorities and assimilating its non-Turkish Muslim minorities. Moreover, AkAi??am argues, Ottoman archival materials support these contentions (pp. With some justice, Taner AkAi??am is highly critical of conventional Turkish interpretations of the Armenian massacres during WWI.

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In this sense, the book is a welcome source of differing views. Nevertheless, while the entrenched nationalist interpretations of the catastrophic events of 1915-16 are admittedly inadequate for understanding and explaining the tragedy that took place, the logical consequence of this state of affairs should not lead one to conclude that any alteative to this simplistic approach would necessarily be accurate and honest. The book contains an introduction, seven chapters, and a conclusion.

The first chapter discusses relevant Ottoman archival sources and other materials. The second attempts to describe «the plan to homogenize Anatolia. » The third and fourth chapters talk about Ottoman policies toward the empire’s Greek population before and during World War I. The fifth, sixth and seventh chapters deal with the Armenian deportations and all at once you’re in search of program vitae or investigation older-created components of pieces of paper composing help essay4students.com the two likewise you’re hunting for course vitae or take a look at old fashioned papers creating assistance the massacres during the war.

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The contents of some chapters are quite similar to those of AkAi??am’s earlier works. However, in this book AkAi??am attempts to substantiate his arguments by also using Ottoman archival materials. According to AkAi??am, after the Balkan Wars of 1912-13, the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), the ruling faction in the Ottoman govement, devised plans to homogenize Anatolia on an ethno-religious basis.

With this goal in mind, they conducted several studies of the population structure, dealing with various groups’ ethnic, social and economic characteristics. By 1913, they began to implement these policies through «a dual mechanism» whereby the govement could ostensibly remain within a legal framework while, in fact, resorting to violent activities through secret channels (p. The studies to which AkAi??am refers include the preparation of ethnicity-based census data, maps and information about the economic situation of the Christian minorities (pp. AkAi??am’s argument about war-time population engineering is worthy of serious consideration however, his insistence that these policies were already mapped out before the war remains problematic on a number of levels.

Here, he relies too much on hindsight and fails to establish any concrete link between these studies and subsequent implemented policies. He reads backwards from subsequent to earlier events.

In addition, some of the studies (or inquiries) to which he refers were actually made during the war. Therefore, it is questionable to interpret all of this data as evidence for the existence of a pre-war «plan» to homogenize Anatolia. According to AkAi??am, economic dimensions in particular held an important place in these population policies.

However, these contentions are not adequately supported.

In his introduction to the fifth chapter, AkAi??am gives special attention to Talat Pasha’s memorandum of May 26, 1915, which outlined the stated reasons for the Armenian relocation and was submitted to Grand Vizier Said Halim Pasha. AkAi??am argues that the document had never been rendered in mode Turkish in its entirety (p. However, this is not true the entire text of the document in mode Turkish is actually found in a document collection on the issue. 11 AkAi??am notes that the Ottoman authorities’ main goal was to remove the possibility of the establishment of an independent Armenian state within the boundaries of the empire.

Few would dispute this Top essay allow review professional dissertation writers either you’re in search of cv or exploration document writing service assertion. In order to support it, AkAi??am approvingly quotes from Talat Pasha’s telegram of August 29, 1915, sent to various provinces and sanjaks (pp.

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Yet, when discussing a different matter some 130 pages later, he changes his mind about the reliability of this document and dismisses the very same telegram as part of «a great deception» (pp. AkAi??am makes no effort to address the question of why a document that he approvingly quoted in one instance should be dismissed as unreliable in another. AkAi??am argues that the relocation of the Armenians went beyond being a temporary security measure and was aimed at «terminally solving the Easte Question» through the extermination of the Armenians.

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He argues this can be deduced from a letter by the influential CUP member Bahaettin Azakir Bey, quoted by the Turkish joualist Ahmet Emin Yalman (p. Stretching the point further, AkAi??am observes important «similarities» between this alleged «letter» and two letters attributed to Bahaettin Azakir by Aram Andonian (p. However, Yalman was not quoting «from a letter of Bahaettin Azakir,» as AkAi??am contends, but was conveying a rumor. 15 According to AkAi??am, the CUP’s Central Committee arrived at the decision to annihilate the Armenian population in March 1915 (pp. However, the memoirs of Arif Cemil Denker (to be discussed later), which AkAi??am uses as his source, do not support such an assertion, but only mention that the «relocation» of Armenians was decided without implying any destructive designs.

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AkAi??am further maintains that some officials who opposed the govement’s policy in this regard were removed from office. He notes, for instance, that ReAYit Pasha, the goveor of Kastamonu province, was removed because he opposed the deportations within his province (p. However, it is noteworthy that, even after the removal of Goveor ReAYit Pasha, the Interior Ministry in several communiquAi??s dispatched to the province still instructed the local authorities to not deport the Armenians in Kastamonu.

At present, the Armenians there will not be relocated. » 17 AkAi??am argues that the goveors who were removed from office later testified before the «Commission on the Investigation of Evil Acts,» as well as the post-war military tribunals, that they were removed because of their opposition to the deportations.

As an example, AkAi??am cites how «Mazhar Bey,» the former goveor of Ankara, explained his case (p. However, the pronouncement quoted by AkAi??am was not made by Mazhar himself, neither to the mentioned commission nor to the post-war tribunals, but was instead attributed to Mazhar Bey by a person named Mehmet Radi.

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